Psalm 22 (LXX 21) and the Crucifixion of Jesus

Mark George Vitalis Hoffman

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract
Preface
Abbreviations and Notations

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - A Survey of Modern Scholarship on Psalm 22

Chapter 3 - The Text and Textual Traditions of Psalm 22 (LXX 21)
3.1 - History of the Textual Tradition of Psalm 22
3.2 - Important Variants in the Textual Tradition of Psalm 22

3.2.1 - Problems in the pointing or meaning of the Hebrew: verses 1, 2a
3.2.2 - Possible variant readings in the pre-LXX Hebrew: verses 2b, 30c
3.2.3 - Miscellaneous problems: verses 2a, 3b, 25a
3.2.4 - The growth of traditions: verses 13b, l7c

3.3 - Versional Understandings of the Psalm as a Whole
3.4 - Conclusions

Chapter 4 - The Role and Interpretation of Psalm 22 in the Old Testament and the Intertestamental, Qumranic, Patristic, and Rabbinic Literature

4.1 - Method
4.2 - The Date and Authorship of Psalm 22

4.2.1 - Ancient Estimations of Psalm 22
4.2.2 - Modern Estimations of the Psalm
4.2.3 - Summary of Date and Authorship of Psalm 22 Claims

4.3 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):10-11 (MT) = Psalm 22:9-10 (NRSV)

4.3.1 - Psalm 22:10-11 and Psalm 71:5-6
4.3.2 - The special status of a person called from the womb
4.3.3 - Deutero-Isaianic traditions
4.3.4 - Other traditions
4.3.5 - Psalm 22:10-11 in the Qumran Literature
4.3.6 - Summary of findings regarding Ps 22:10-11

4.4 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):1-2 (MT) = Psalm 22:Title-I (NRSV)

4.4.1 - Verse 1: "To the music-master..."
4.4.2 - Verse 2aa: "My God, My God"
4.4.3 - Verse 2aa: "Give heed to me" (LXX)
4.4.4 - Verse 2ab: "Why did you abandon me?"
4.4.5 - Verse 2b: "Far from my salvation are the words of my bellowings"
4.4.6 - Summary of findings regarding Psalm 22:2

4.5 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):3 (MT) = Psalm 22:2 (NRSV)
4.6 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):4 (MT) = Psalm 22:3 (NRSV)
4.7 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):5-6 (MT) = Psalm 22:4-5 (NRSV)
4.8 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):7-9 (MT) = Psalm 22:6-8 (NRSV)

4.8.1 - Verse 7a: "And I am a worm and not a man"
4.8.2 - Verses 7b-8b: "A reproach..."

4.8.2.1 - Verse 7ba: "Reproach of human"
4.8.2.2 - Verse 7bb: "Scorn of people"
4.8.2.3 - Psalm 22:7b, "Servant Songs," and Psalm 89
4.8.2.4 - Verse 8a: "All the ones beholding me mock at me."
4.8.2.5 - Verse 8ba: "They separate with (their) lip"
4.8.2.6 - Verse 8bb: "They shake (their) head."

4.8.3 - Verse 9: "Rely upon the Lord; let him liberate…"

4.8.3.1 - Verse 9aa: "Rely upon the Lord"
4.8.3.2 - Verse 9ab: "Let him liberate him"
4.8.3.3 - Verse 9ba: "Let him rescue him"
4.8.3.4 - Verse 9bb: "For he delighted in him"

4.8.4 - Conclusions

[For Psalm 22 (LXX 21):10-11 (MT) = Psalm 22:9-10 (NRSV), cf. 4.3 above]

4.9 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):12 and 20 (MT) = Psalm 22:11 and 19 (NRSV)
4.10 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):13-14 (MT) = Psalm 22:12-13 (NRSV)
4.11 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):15-16 (MT) = Psalm 22:14-15 (NRSV)

4.11.1 - Verse 15
4.11.2 - Verse 16

4.11.2.1 - Verse 16a: "Dry like a potsherd was my strength"
4.11.2.2 - Verse 16b: "My tongue was cleaving [to] my jaws"
4.11.2.3 - Verse 16c: "To the dust of death you will set me"

4.11.3 - Summary of findings on verses 15-16

4.12 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):17-19 (MT) = Psalm 22:16-18 (NRSV)

4.12.1 - Verse 17a and b
4.12.2 - Verse 17c
4.12.3 - Excursus: The interpretation of Ps 22:17c in early Christianity

4.12.3.1 - Observations on the use of Ps 22:17c in early Christian literature
4.12.3.2 - Summary

4.12.4 - Verse 18a: "I will count all my bones."
4.12.5 - Verse 18b: "They will stare, they will look at me."
4.12.6 - Verse 19

[For Psalm 22 (LXX 21:20 (MT) = Psalm 22:19 (NRSV), cf. 4.9 above]

4.13 - Psalm 22 (LXI 21):21-22 (MT) = Psalm 22:20-21 (NRSV)

4.13.1 - Verse 2la: "Rescue from the knife ay soul"
4.13.2 - Verse 2lb: "From the hand of a dog my only one"
4.13.3 - Verse 22a: "Save me from the mouth of a lion;"
4.13.4 - Verse 22b: "And from the horns of the remim ..."

4.14 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):23-27 (MT) = Psalm 22:22-28 (NRSV)

4.14.1 - Verse 23: "I will recount your name to my brothers..."
4.14.2 - Verse 24: "Fearers of the Lord, laud him..."
4.14.3 - Verse 25: "For he did not scorn..."
4.14.4 - Verse 26: "From you (is) my laud..."
4.14.5 - Verse 27: "Poor ones will eat and will be satisfied…"

4.15 - Psalm 22 (LXX 21):28-32 (MT) = Psalm 22:27-31 (NRSV)

4.15.1 - Verse 28: "They will remember, and they will return..."
4.15.2 - Verse 29: "Because to the Lord (is) the kingdom..."
4.15.3 - Verse 30: "All the rich ones of the earth ate..."
4.15.4 - Verses 31-32: "A seed will serve him..."

4.16 - Psalm 22 and Psalms 69, 102, 31, and 71

4.16.1 - Psalm 22 and Psalm 69
4.16.2 - Psalm 22 and Psalm 102
4.16.3 - Psalm 22 and Psalm 31
4.16.4 - Psalm 22 and Psalm 71

4.17 - Psalm 22 and Apocryphal Psalms 152 and 153

4.17.1 - Text and Transmission of Psalms 152 and 153
4.17.2 - The Relationship of Psalms 152 and 153 to Psalm 22
4.17.3 - A Possible History of Psalms 152 and 153
4.17.4 - Psalms 152 and 153 and the Interpretation of Psalm 22

4.18 - Psalm 22 and the Wisdom of Solomon

4.19 - Psalm 22, Esther, and Rabbinic Traditions

4.19.1 - Applications of Psalm 22 to Esther
4.19.2 - When and why Psalm 22 was identified with Esther
4.19.3 - Conclusions

4.20 - Summary: The Role and Interpretation of Psalm 22

Chapter 5 - Allusions to Psalm 22 in the New Testament

5.1 - Psalm 22:1
5.2 - Psalm 22:2
5.3 - Psalm 22:3
5.4 - Psalm 22:4
5.5 - Psalm 22:5-6
5.6 - Psalm 22:7-9
5.7 - Psalm 22:10-11
5.8 - Psalm 22:12 and 20
5.9 - Psalm 22:13-14
5.10 - Psalm 22:15-16
5.11 - Psalm 22:17-19

5.11.1 - Psalm 22:17ab
5.11.2 - Psalm 22:17c
5.11.3 - Psalm 22:18
5.11.4 - Psalm 22:19

5.12 - Psalm 22:21-22
5.13 - Psalm 22:23-27

5.13.1 - Psalm 22:23
5.13.2 - Psalm 22:24
5.13.3 - Psalm 22:25
5.13.4 - Psalm 22:26
5.13.5 - Psalm 22:27

5.14 - Psalm 22:28-32

5.14.1 - Psalm 22:28
5.14.2 - Psalm 22:29
5.14.3 - Psalm 22:30
5.14.4 - Psalm 22:31-32

5.15 - Observations and Conclusions

Chapter 6 - The Interpretation of Psalm 22 by the New Testament Authors

6.1 - Psalm 22 and the Letters of Paul
6.2 - Psalm 22 and the Gospel of Mark
6.3 - Psalm 22 and the Gospel of Matthew
6.4 - Psalm 22 and the Gospel of Luke
6.5 - Psalm 22 and the Gospel of John
6.6 - Psalm 22 and Hebrews
6.7 - Psalm 22 and 1 Peter
6.8 - Psalm 22 and Revelation
6.9 - Psalm 22 and 2 Timothy 4:16-18
6.10 - Observations and Conclusions

Chapter 7 - Conclusions

7.1 - A Concluding Postscript

Appendix A - Ancient Versions of Psalm 22 (LXX21)

Introduction
Hebrew

Masoretic Text
Qumran Fragments of Ps 22:15-17: 4QPsf, fragments a and b

Targum
Greek Versions

Septuagint (LXX)
Aquila
Symmachus
Greek Versions in Parallel

Septuagint (LXX), Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, Quinta, Sexta, and other Greek versions

Syro-Hexapla
Syriac Peshitta
Latin Versions in Parallel

Old Latin, Roman Psalter, Gallican Psalter = Vulgate, and Jerome's Latin based on the Hebrew

Appendix B - Vocabulary Equivalences

Appendix C - All Versions in Parallel English Translation

Bibliography

Tables

1: The Influence of Psalm 22 on the New Testament (by psalm verse)
2: Psalm 22:7-9 in the Synoptic Gospels
3: Synoptic Parallels of the Crucifixion Scene
4: Psalm 22 and 2 Timothy 4:16-18